Researchers found eco efficiency grew between 1998 and 2017 except some northern and Siberian regions with lower populations, less technology and investmental potential. They noticed GDP growth with eco efficiency provides a sustainable development model.
They used data from RosStat (Russia’s national statistics service). They calculated efficiency using data envelopment analysis (DEA).
To assess the results of sustainable economic activity in the region, we propose an indirect indicator of the output of non-primary goods and services-gross regional product (GRP) in constant prices minus mining activities and federal transfers, billion rubles. Federal transfers accounted for in GDP are mainly associated with the redistribution of oil rent between regions, therefore they are excluded from the assessment of regional ecological efficiency.Zemtsov & Barinova (2022)
We use several variables that characterize resource costs:-
- Labour: number of labour force (million people)
- capital: the cost of fixed assets in constant prices (billion rubles)
- natural resources: electricity consumption (million kWh); water consumption (million cubic meters); value added by type of activity “Extraction of minerals” in constant prices (billion rubles)
- environmental costs: emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere (thousand tons).
Zemtsov and Barinova (2022)
They recommend eco incentives to improve energy efficiencies, reduce atmospheric pollution, conserve water, develop renewable energy sources as well as improving efficiency in current raw material extraction. Financial incentives could also include tax deductions, eco vouchers for SMEs and homeowners.
Zemtsov, S.; Barinova, V. Ecological Efficiency and Sustainable Regional Development in Russia. Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 15, 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2022015030