We start with a summary of the “Report about climate features on the territory of Russian Federation, 2018” published this year by Roshydromet (the Federal service for hydrometeorology and environmental monitoring) which covers the annual temperatures, condition of glaciers, precipitation and CO2 concentration estimated on the territory of Russia during the last year.
Annual climate monitoring in Russian Federation has shown that 2018 was a comparably warm year approximately +1,58°С higher than normal average temperature (Figure 1).
Temperatures are getting warmer throughout the whole territory of Russia and during all the seasons, with the high speed rate estimated as 0.47°С in 10 years. The regions with the highest warming rate in Russia are located mainly in the eastern part of the country, especially in the Chukchi region where temperatures have risen up to 3.9°С above the norm (Figure 2).
In the Northern parts of Russia, 2018 was the fourth warmest year since 1958. In the Arctic, the estimated annual temperature was 2.5°С higher than an average. The least warming was reported in Southern Siberia, where the temperatures every year get slightly cooler during the winter season, although this process goes much slower than during the last decade. The ice cover in the Siberian Arctic has been rapidly declining since 1998, decreasing by 2005 to only 300 thousand square km, which is just a quarter of the ice area estimated in the 1980s.
The average precipitation rate around Russia in 2018 was estimated as 104% of the norm. At the same time, summer rainfalls tend to decrease which has negative impact on agriculture.
Lastly, the level of СО2 concentration in the northern latitudes of Russia is constantly growing (2.2ppm per year) and in 2018 reached the new maximum above 410 ppm. On the other hand, the level of methane in the atmosphere dropped down in comparison with previous years.
Overall, we can clearly observe the trend of warming temperatures which goes hand in hand with the rise in precipitation throughout Russia and the melting of glaciers in the north of the country. The concentration of greenhouse gases has increased and reached its new maximum, while the concentration of methane has dropped.
Roshydromet (2019), A report on climate features on the territory of the Russian Federation in 2018.
Original source (in Russian): http://www.meteorf.ru/upload/pdf_download/o-klimate-rf-2018.pdf